Ada dua cara untuk menyampaikan pesan dari seseorang, atau kata-kata yang diucapkan dari orang lain ke orang lain.
1. Direct Speech (Kalimat Langsung)
Kalimat yang dikutip dari perkataan seseorang tanpa mengubah kata-katanya, biasanya terdapat tanda kutip dalam kalimat langsung.
2. Indirect Speech (Kalimat Tidak Langsung)
Kalimat yang merupakan kalimat penyampaian apa yang dikatakan seseorang, dalam kalimat ini terdapat perubahan bentuk kalimat tanpa bermaksud merubah maknanya.
Direct Speech -> “I’m going to school”, he said (Saya akan pergi sekolah).
Indirect Speech ->He said that he was going to the school (Dia berkata, bahwa dia akan pergi ke sekolah).
Direct speech berubah bentuknya (TENSES) apabila disusun dalam bentuk indirect speech.
– Present Simple – Past simple
- He said, “it’s hot”. (direct speech)
- He said that it was hot. (indirect speech)
– Present continuous – Past continuous
- Lala said. “I’m learning English subject. (direct speech)
- Lala said that she was learning English subject. (indirect speech)
– Present perfect simple – Past perfect simple
- Chloe said, “I have had my lunch”. (direct speech)
- Chloe said that she had had her lunch. (indirect speech)
– Present perfect continuous – Past perfect continuous
- Nuna said, “I have been working at factory since 2010”. (direct speech)
- Nuna said that she had been working at factory since 2010. (indirect speech)
– Past simple – past perfect
- My mother said “I visited my friend yesterday”. (direct speech)
- My mother said that she had visited her friend yesterday. (indirect speech)
– Past continuous – Past perfect continuous
- Elsa said, “I was reading English book”. (direct speech)
- Elsa said that she had been reading English book. (indirect speech)
Note : apabila direct speech berbentuk past perfect & past perfect continuous, maka bentuk indirect speech-nya pun sama dengan bentuk direct speech-nya (tidak berubah).