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Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan atau situasi yang dimulai di masa lalu dan masih berlangsung sampai masa sekarang, atau kejadian tersebut telah selesai di masa lalu namun masih berdampak sampai ke masa sekarang.

Misalnya kita hendak menceritakan hal berikut :

Rani kehilangan gelang dan dia saat ini sedang mencari gelangnya. Dia tidak bisa menemukan gelangnya.

Hilangnya gelang Rani terjadi di masa lalu dan juga masih sampai sekarang. Kita dapat menjelaskan situasi ini dalam kalimat present perfect:

Rani is looking for her necklace. She can’t find it. She has lost her necklace.

Have / has lost adalah bentuk present perfect.

S ( I/we/you/they) + Have + Past Participle (Verb-3)

S ( he/she/it ) + Has + Past Participle (Verb-3)

Kalimat positif : s + have/has + past participle

I have read this essay.

She has gone out.

Kalimat negatif : s + have/has + not + past participle

I have not read this essay.

She has not gone out.

Kalimat pertanyaan : have/has + s + past participle / wh-word + have/has + past participle

Have you read this essay?

Has she gone out?

How long has Rani worked at this company?

What have they studied here?

Dalam bentuk past participle kata kerja beraturan ( regular verbs ) sering diakhiri dengan –ed, contoh : finished, decided dll. Tapi banyak kata kerja penting yang merupakan kata kerja tak beraturan ( irregular verbs ), contoh : lost, written, done, gone dll.

Contoh penggunaan present perfect tense :

  • Menyatakan sesuatu yang baru saja terjadi

Ow! I have cut my hair.

The shop is closed. There has been a robbery.

  • Menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lalu dan berpengaruh ke masa kini

She told me her address, but I have forgotten it.

I can’t find my pen. Have you seen it?

  • Menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi di masa lalu dan berlanjut sampai sekarang.

I haven’t heard from Rina recently.

You’ve seen many things in the last few days.

We haven’t made any mistakes so far.

She hasn’t eaten anything since breakfast. (Dia belum makan apapun sejak sarapan sampai sekarang)

We haven’t seen our teacher for a long time.

I have not seen Rina this morning. Have you?

Mega has studied very hard today.

  • Menyatakan kegiatan yang sudah ke berapa kali terjadi.

It’s the first time Joni has eaten a pizza. He has never eaten a pizza before.

Soni has lost his pen again. This is the third time this has happened.

 

Kita dapat menggunakan present perfect bersama dengan kata – kata just, already dan yet.

Contoh :

Just = baru saja

He has just arrived here.

Already = sudah terjadi tanpa disadari
‘Don’t forget to send the present.’
‘He has already sent it.’

Yet = sampai sekarang, berharap sesuatu terjadi.
Has it stopped noising yet?
Beberapa contoh lain kalimat yang menggunakan present perfect tense :

I have been to Amsterdam twice.

Have you ever eaten pizza?

It’s the funniest film I’ve ever seen.

Been (to) = mengunjungi

Catatan :

Tidak ada perbedaan antara ‘gone (to)’ dan (been (to)’.
Rima is on holiday. She has gone to Sabang.

Rima berada di Sabang sekarang atau dalam perjalanan ke Sabang.

Rima is back home now. She has been to Sabang.

Rima sudah kembali ke rumahnya.

 

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